The way that a sound’s amplitude evolves over time is called its amplitude envelope.
There’s a wide variety of ways that one can try to make direct correspondences between 2D or 3D visual images and sound. (Any process that represents data as sound falls in the general category of “sonification”.) Here’s an example.
This patch uses a random number generator to choose a mix of 12 sine tones, play them, and display them as white pixels in a black and white matrix. The 12 sine tones are played with a single object called ioscbank~, which is a bank of interpolating sinusoidal oscillators.